trò chơi điện tử một người chơi

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A single-player video clip game is a video clip game where input from only one player is expected throughout the course of the gaming session. A single-player game is usually a game that can only be played by one person, while "single-player mode" is usually a game mode designed to lớn be played by a single player, though the game also contains multi-player modes.[1]

Most modern console games and arcade games are designed ví that they can be played by a single player; although many of these games have modes that allow two or more players to lớn play (not necessarily simultaneously), very few actually require more than vãn one player for the game to lớn be played. The Unreal Tournament series is one example of such.[2]


The earliest video clip games, such as Tennis for Two (1958), Spacewar! (1962), and Pong (1972), were symmetrical games designed to lớn be played by two players. Single-player games gained popularity only after this, with early titles such as Speed Race (1974)[3] and Space Invaders (1978).

The reason for this, according to lớn Raph Koster, is down to lớn a combination of several factors: increasingly sophisticated computers and interfaces that enabled asymmetric gameplay, cooperative gameplay and story delivery within a gaming framework, coupled with the fact that the majority of early games players had introverted personality types (according to lớn the Myers-Briggs personality type indicator).[4]

Although most modern games incorporate a single-player element either as the core or as one of several game modes, single-player gaming is currently viewed by the video clip game industry as peripheral to lớn the future of gaming, with Electronic Arts vice president Frank Gibeau stating in 2012 that he had not approved one game to lớn be developed as a single-player experience.[5]

The question of the financial viability of single-player AAA games was raised following the closure of Visceral Games by Electronic Arts (EA) in October 2017. Visceral had been a studio that established itself on a strong narrative single-player focus with Dead Space, and had been working on a single-player, linear narrative Star Wars game at the time of the closure; EA announced following this that they would be taking the game in a different direction, specifically "a broader experience that allows for more variety and player agency".[6] Many commentators felt that EA made the change as they did not have confidence that a studio with an AAA-scale budget could produce a viable single-player game based on the popular Star Wars franchise. Alongside this, as well as relatively poor sales of games in the year prior that were principally AAA single-player games (Resident Evil 7, Prey, Dishonored 2, and Deus Ex: Mankind Divided) against financially successful multiplayer games and those offer a games-as-a-service model (Overwatch, Destiny 2, and Star Wars Battlefront 2), were indicators to lớn many that the single-player model for AAA was waning.[7][8][9][10] Manveer Heir, who had left EA after finishing his gameplay design work for Mass Effect Andromeda, acknowledged that the culture within EA was against the development of single-player games, and with Visceral's closure, "that the linear single-player triple-A game at EA is dead for the time being".[11] Bethesda on December 7, 2017, decided to lớn collaborate with Lynda Carter to lớn launch a Public Safety Announcement to lớn save single-player gaming.[12]

A few years later in 2021, EA was reported to lớn have revived interest in single-player games, following the successful launch of Star Wars Jedi: Fallen Order in 2020. The company still planned on releasing live service games with multiplayer components, but began evaluating its IP catalog for more single-player titles to lớn revive, such as a remake of the Dead Space franchise.[13] Around the same time, head of Xbox trò chơi Studios Phil Spencer said that they still see a place for narrative-driven single-player games even though the financial drivers of the market tended to lớn be live service games. Spencer said that developing such games with AAA-scale budgets can be risky, but with availability of services lượt thích cloud gaming and subscription services, they can gauge audience reaction to lớn these games early on and reduce the risk involved before releases.[14]

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Game elements[edit]

As the narrative and conflict in single-player gameplay is created by a computer rather than vãn a human opponent, single-player games are able to lớn deliver certain gaming experiences that are typically absent—or de-emphasised—in multiplayer games.[15]


Single-player games rely more heavily on compelling stories to lớn draw the player into the experience and to lớn create a sense of investment. Humans are unpredictable, ví human players - allies or enemies - cannot be relied upon to lớn carry a narrative in a particular direction, and ví multiplayer games tend not to lớn focus heavily on a linear narrative. By contrast, many single-player games are built around a compelling story.[16]


While a multi-player game relies upon human-human interaction for its conflict, and often for its sense of camaraderie, a single-player game must build these things artificially. As such, single-player games require deeper characterisation of their non-player characters in order to lớn create connections between the player and the sympathetic characters and to lớn develop deeper antipathy towards the game's antagonists. This is typically true of role-playing games (RPGs), such as Dragon Quest and the Final Fantasy, which are primarily character-driven.


These game elements are not firm, fixed rules; single-player puzzle games such as Tetris or racing games focus squarely on gameplay.

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See also[edit]

  • Massively multiplayer online game


  1. ^ Oosterhu; Feireiss, Lukas (March 2006). The Architecture Co-laboratory: trò chơi Set and Match II : on Computer Games, Advanced Geometries, and Digital Technologies. Delft: Delft University of Technology. p. 180. ISBN 9789059730366.
  2. ^ "Unreal Tournament 3 Single-player Campaign Preview." Unreal Tournament 3 Single-player Campaign Pr. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Apr. 2013.
  3. ^ "Speed Race." (Game). N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Apr. 2013.
  4. ^ Koster, Raph (10 Feb 2006). "Are single-player games doomed?". Archived from the original on 8 February 2013. Retrieved 2013-02-25.
  5. ^ "Is single-player gaming under-threat?". Computer and Video Games. Future plc. 28 Oct 2012. Retrieved 2013-02-25.
  6. ^ Wales, Matt (October 17, 2017). "EA has shut down Visceral Games". Eurogamer. Retrieved October 17, 2017.
  7. ^ Sarkar, Samit (October 18, 2017). "EA's Star Wars 'pivot' is a vote of no confidence in single-player games". Polygon. Retrieved October trăng tròn, 2017.
  8. ^ Staff (October 19, 2017). "Does Visceral's closure prove AAA single-player games are dying?". Gamasutra. Retrieved October trăng tròn, 2017.
  9. ^ Klepek, Patrick (October 17, 2017). "Today's Star Wars News Makes the Future of Single-Player Look Very Messy". Vice. Retrieved October trăng tròn, 2017.
  10. ^ McCarthy, Caty (October 19, 2017). "The Rise and Fall of Visceral Games". US Gamer. Retrieved October trăng tròn, 2017.
  11. ^ Purchase, Robert (October 23, 2017). "I've seen people literally spend $15,000 on Mass Effect multiplayer cards". Eurogamer. Retrieved October 23, 2017.
  12. ^ Chalk, Andy (December 7, 2017). "Bethesda kicks off a 'Save Player 1' sale for its single-player games". PC Gamer. Retrieved December 14, 2017.
  13. ^ Grubb, Jeff (July 1, 2021). "Dead Space remake is in the works at Motive". Venture Beat. Retrieved July 1, 2021.
  14. ^ Stuart, Keith (July 13, 2021). "Phil Spencer on the future of Xbox: we still want to lớn take risks with games". The Guardian. Retrieved July 13, 2021.
  15. ^ "ThomasDaPsycho." : Video trò chơi Story Elements. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Apr. 2013.
  16. ^ "Tales of the Rampant Coyote: What Makes a Great RPG - Mechanics." Tales of the Rampant Coyote. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Apr. 2013.


  • Fullerton, Tracy (2014). Game Design Workshop: A Playcentric Approach to lớn Creating Innovative Games (3 ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 978-1498785877. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  • Mitra, Ananda (2010). Digital Games: Computers at Play. Infobase Publishing. pp. 24–39. ISBN 978-0816067862. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  • Perron, Bernard; Wolf, Mark J.P. (2014). The Routledge Companion to lớn Video trò chơi Studies. Routledge. pp. 253–256. ISBN 978-1136290503. Retrieved 30 January 2018.